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Conduction drying is the basic mass transfer principle used in most vacuum dryers.
Convection drying requires the heating of the air. The higher the air temperature, the faster the drying speed. However, too high a temperature may cause the surface of some materials to harden and form a crust.
Compared to convection drying, conduction drying can be carried out at lower temperatures and in a better sealed environment. Therefore, it is more energy efficient and controllable and has become ideal for handling hygroscopic, heat sensitive and toxic powders and particles.
Vacuum drying is a batch operation carried out in a closed chamber. Using a vacuum pump, the pressure and humidity in the chamber are reduced, which allows the material in the chamber to dry more efficiently.